Place Name Puzzle Solver, aka 'City Match'
Dr. Phillip M. Feldman
Most of us, at one time or another, have played a game or worked on a puzzle that involved finding the name of a city or country that satisfies certain conditions. This online solver solves a wide range of such problems.
Here are a few examples of problems that this solver can answer:
Find all cities whose names begin with the letter a and are exactly five letters long.
Find all cities whose names end with the letter c.
Find all cities such that the name of the city and the name of the country, U.S. state, or Canadian province both begin with the letter a.
Find all cities in the United States or Canada that begin with the letter t.
The city database that I'm using currently contains 747 cities. This number is expected to slowly grow over time. The current rules for deciding whether a given city is included are as follows:
Any city in North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, or Israel having a greater-metropolitan-area population of 300,000 or more (as of 2020) is included.
In other areas of the world, any city having a greater-metropolitan-area population of 1,000,000 or more is included.
Certain cities that do not meet the above criteria, but that have some special historical, cultural, or political significance are also included. These are decided on a case-by-case basis.
For cities in the United States and Canada, the database contains the name of the city, the name of the U.S. state or Canadian province, and the name of the country. For cities in all other countries, the database stores only the names of the city and the country. The United States is always abbreviated as "U.S."; names of other countries and of U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and cities are never abbreviated.
The city database was constructed by hand. Errors are fixed as these come to my attention; undoubtedly that are many that have not yet been discovered. All specific error reports are welcome and will be promptly addressed.
Inputs to the
The first template specifies any restrictions on the name of the city. The second specifies any restrictions on the name of the county, U.S. state, or Canadian province.
Each template is a hangman-style string containing letters, spaces, and any of the following special characters:
_): As in hangman, the underscore represents
an unknown character (letter or a space).
plus sign (
+): This represents one or more unknown
*): This represents zero or more unknown
characters, i.e., the asterisk will match anything or nothing.
question mark (
?): This represents zero or one unknown
characters, i.e., either a single letter may be substituted for the question
mark, or the question mark may be deleted, closing up the space.
vertical bar (
|): This symbol separates alternative
patterns. A match to any of the alternatives is considered a match to the
Here are a few examples:
To find all cities whose names begin with the letter a and are
exactly five letters long, specify
for the city template and leave the country template blank.
To find all cities whose names end with the letter c, specify
*c for the city template, leave the country template blank, and
make sure that the first check box is checked.
To find all cities such that the name of the city and the name of the
country, U.S. state, or Canadian province both begin with the letter a,
a* for both the city template and country template.
One could find all cities in the United States or Canada that begin with
the letter t by performing two separate searches, but this would be
inconvenient. One can obtain the same information with the following single
t* for the city template, and
u.s.|canada for the country template.
Some city names contain the word city; examples are Guatemala City and Mexico City. Depending on the rules of the game or puzzle, one may wish to ignore the word city for purposes of determining whether a given city name matches the specified template. If, for example, if one wishes to find city names that end with the letter y, one probably does not want Guatemala City and Mexico City to be returned as matches. A check box (see below) allows one to control whether the presence of the word city in the name of a city is counted as significant.
If a template field is empty, this is equivalent to putting an asterisk in that field, i.e., that template will match everything. (See exception below).
If both template fields are empty, the program will generate an error.
One may put an asterisk (or something equivalent, e.g., some combination of underscores and asterisks) in each of the two template fields. In this case, the program will return the entire database! (This is typically not what is desired).
Currently, there is no mechanism for restricting a search to a geographic region that includes multiple countries, other than via the vertical bar operator discussed above.
To find cities whose names contain only the letters a-h, specify
[a-h]*$ for the city regex, leave the
country regex blank, and check the "Use Python regular expressions" checkbox.
[a-h] in the regex is an
example of what is known as a character class; this defines a set of
characters. (There is only one city in the database that matches this
Suppose that we wish to find cities whose names begin and end with the
same letter, where this letter is not a. This can be done using a
character class together with something known as a back reference.
for the city regex, leave the country regex blank, and check the "Use Python
regular expressions" checkbox.
In each box, either enter a template or clear (remove) the template.
If a box is left empty, no filtering of results is done based on the corresponding database field. (If, for example, one enters 'Russia' into the second field and leaves the first field empty, the program will return a list containing all Russian cities in the database).
Upper- and lower-case can be used interchangeably.
One can move from the first box to the second by pressing the tab key.
Make sure that the checkbox settings are as desired.
Click on the green button.
Last update: 27 Dec., 2022